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Appendix A


Figure 1:    Detail of the Codex Runicus Manuscript, Arnamagnæan Digitization Project

             Drømte Mig en Drøm is apparently a familiar piece in Denmark as it was used as theme music on Denmark’s national radio for years.  Unfortunately, most of the transcriptions I was able to find did not quite match up with the original.  While the basic tune is fairly consistent, there are many interpretations of the timing and thus the feel of this tune as well as a few note issues.

            The Viking Network website, while an excellent resource otherwise, has two major discrepancies.  First, although their line drawing reproduction is identical to that of the manuscript, they cite it as being carved in a small piece of wood from the 14th century that was found in Denmark.  Secondly, their music is clearly longer than the original.  Now it is possible that there is a second source that I’ve never heard of, but the chances of two versions of the same music being the only music found in Denmark for 200 years is next to nil.  I suspect their music is a modern variation on the theme.
Figure 2: Viking Network version
            By comparison, the audio file that accompanies the facsimile of the manuscript on the Arnamagnæan Digitization Project website (figure 3) is too short.  A couple of notes are deleted from the section with text and the “instrumental” section at the end is missing entirely.
Figure 3: transcription of the audio file from the Arnamagnæan Digitization Project website.

            I have not yet come across any discussion of the final section of the music where the runes leave off.  My skill at reading mensural notation is not good enough to puzzle out the phrase that is squeezed into the end of the second line, but it is clearly a variation on the original theme.  My suspicion is that this either was meant to be an instrumental bridge or a short-hand notation for a section that appeared later in the piece (if not the very next line).  In my own compositions I occasionally use similar short-cuts in my rough drafts in order to save staff paper.

Appendix B


                         Noble, lowly, Magnus the steadfast martyr,
                        able, serviceable, reverend earl and honoured guardian:
                        save thy people burdened with frail flesh [1]

Harald Hardrade’s Song (Hartmann #4)


Skammel lived in the north, by Tyr, being both rich and well-reared
Five sons had he, all tall and proud with two of them having grown beards.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

The elder was Ebbé Skammelssøn and Peder was his brother.
Sorrowful is the tale I sing, how one did slay another.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild path.

Ebbé wooed gentle Lucelill and soon he won her hand.
Ebbé took his betrothed home to live in his mother’s land.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Ebbé in search of gold and fame serves at the court of the King.
His brother Peder, still at home courts Lucelill with a ring.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

“Lucelill, scorn my off’rings not! My brother cares little for you
Ebbé serves in the King’s Own Guard and now has a lady new!”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild path.

“For Ebbé I’ll wait for eight long years and I will accept no other.
No one shall win my heart and love, far less Ebbé’s very own brother.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

But up and spake his mother cruel, She spoke these words untrue,
“Take my son Peder Skammelssøn for Ebbé loves not you.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Fair Lucelil shook her golden locks exclaiming, “I love him still!
When Ebbé returns from o’er the sea I’ll serve him in all he wills.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

“Then I must tell the naked truth,” his mother to her replied:
“I would have spared you Lucelill, but Ebbé at harvest died.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

So work did start on the wedding feast and all did bake and brew,
While at the court Ebbé served his King and nothing of these things knew.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

At midnight did Ebbé Skammelssøn awake from an evil sleep,
And as he lay trembling in a sweat foreboding to him did creep.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

“I dreamt in my tower of stone the flames licked tall and wide,
While my brother Peder burned within beside my very bride!”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

That same night did Ebbé Skammelssøn don armour and ride away.
So Ebbé came to his father’s gate all on the wedding day.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Outside stood Ebbé’s sisters two: each held a cup of gold,
And they bade Ebbé Skammelssøn to be neither fierce nor bold.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

So Ebbé was brought into the hall unnoticed by all the rest,
And with every toast to Lucelill the sadness welled in his chest.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

As evening came, Lucelill did stand to seek out the bridal bed.
With torch did Ebbé Skammelssøn as eldest walk at the head.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Ebbé did stop the bridal train in front of the bower door.
“Fair Lucelill, did you forget you were pledged to me before?”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

“I fear, Ebbé, all I swore before is pledged now unto your brother,
But all the days that I will live I’ll treat you like a mother.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

But underneath Ebbé riding cloak his broadsword there did hide.
He drew it and with its flashing blade did murder his brother’s bride.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Ebbé did call to his brother false: “Leave now the mead and the wine.
Your bride is calling after you as in the bed she does pine!”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

Then up spoke Peder Skammelssøn and loudly did he laugh.
He could not see his brother’s face pale with revenge and wrath.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

“Listen,” said Peder Skammelssøn, “And lay your rage aside.
If you so desire Lucelill to you I’ll yield the bride.”
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

But as the groom stood to leave the hall, mad Ebbé did strike again.
And greatly the guests did cry out, for Ebbé cleft Peder in twain.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

He dealt his father a fatal blow, his mother false lost a hand.
And this is why Ebbé Skammelssøn the outlaw rides over the land.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.

And so did Ebbé Skammelssøn jump onto his horse and ride.
He haunts the forests of Denmark fair in search of a place to hide.
            And so it is Ebbé Skammelssøn treads on the wild paths.[3]

En Märkelig Vise om de Söfarne Mänd   

          Der bode en konning i Babylon,
           ‑ De söfarne mänd. ‑
           fire og tyve sönner havde han.
           ‑ De söfarne mänd,
           i lunden der grode deres årer.

         Somme vilde sejle, somme vilde ro,
         ingen vilde hjemme hos faderen bo.

         De gange dennem da ned til strand,
        de glemte Gud fader, sön og hellig‑ånd.

         De lagde dennem ud at sejle til fuld,
         de hissede deres sejt med silke og guld.

         "Nu ville vi sejle og fare,
         ja vel udi åtte åre."

         De selje, de selje på bölgen blå,
         de sejlede under et askärv, some de lå.

         Alle vare de söskendebörn for sand,
         så när som den gamle styremend.

         De lagde dem ned at gräde,
         de havde slet intet at äde.

         "I tör ikke end ved at gräde,
         I ville mig nu slet opäde."

        De toge og bandt ham ved sejlende‑stang,
       de slagted ham som at andet lam.

        De toge og bandt ham ved sejlende‑trä,
       de slagted ham, som bönder slagte fä.

        De skare ud hans lever og lunge,
       de bare for den unge konge.

        "I salter det köd og gemmer det vel!
        för vi äde deraf, da sulte vi ihjel."

        Da kom der en due fra himmelen ned,
       den satte sig på det sejlende‑trä.

        Kongen han taled til liden smådreng:
       "Du skyd mig den due og kog mig den!"

        "Jeg er ikke en due, at skyde händt,
        jed er en engel, af himmelen sendt."

        "Est du en Guds engel, som af går savn,
        så hjälp du os over i Jesu navn!"

        "Lägger eder hen at sove under ö!
        mens jeg sejler over den sälte sö!"

        Så vågned op den förste;
        "Nu have vi vinden den bedste!"

        Så vågned op den anden:
        "Nu ere vi komne til landen!"

        Nu er her gläde over alle med gammen,
           ‑ De söfarne mänd. ‑
        fader og sönner de komme tilsammen.
           ‑ De söfarne mänd,
        udi lunden der grode deres årer.

A Wonderful Ballad of the Seafaring Men

           In Babylon lived a king of yore,
             ‑The seafaring men.‑
             he had twenty sons and four.
             ‑The seafaring men,
              in the greenwood grew their oars. Oh!

           Some would sail, and some would roam,
           none would stay with his father at home.

       They went to the strand with bang and boast,
They forgot God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost.

       They laid out to sail so bold,
        they hoisted their sails with silk and gold.

        "Now we will sail, now we will fare,
        nothing less than seven year.

        They sailed and sailed the billows blue,
        till under a rock, where wind never blew.

        All were of the same kin and blood,
        the old steersman was the only odd.

        They lay down crying and weeping,
        no crumb was left for eating.

       Quoth the old mate: "Before you starve,
       rather ye may me kill and carve."

      They took and bound him to the mast,
      they slaughtered him as another beast.

      They slaughtered him as calf or lamb,
      they cooked and carved him as veal or ham.

      They cut out both liver and lung,
      and bore it for the king so young.

      "Keep it yourselves, and salt your meat;
      I will much rather die than eat."

     There came a dove from the heavens high
     it sat down on the sailing tree.

     Quoth the young king to his boy so wee:
      "Shoot me that bird, and cook it for me."

     "I am no bird to be shot for food,
     I am from heaven an angel good."

     "If thou art a God's angel, as thou dost tell,
      In the name of Christ thou help us well."

    "Lay yourselves down to sleep and rest;
     while I will sail the salt sea best."

     Up awoke sailor the airest:
    "Now we have wind the fairest."

     Up and spoke another:
     "I see the land of my mother."

     There was mirth, and there was glee,
            ‑ The seafaring men. ‑
     when father and sons each other did see.
                ‑ The seafaring men,
     in the greenwood grew their oars. Oh!



 The Aksel Schiøtz Anthology of Nordic Solo Songs Vol. 5 Iceland/Faroe Islands.  Ed. Gert Schiøtz. (Edition Egtued Danmark, 1986).
            The earliest songs in this collection are medieval, but still useful in tracking musical traditions backwards. Each song is given a little write up as well as an English translation.

“Bosi and Herraud”.  Two Viking Romances.  Trans. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. (Penguin Classics: NY 1995).
            These are two very funny little stories (at least from a modern perspective), but not ones that I would choose to accurately reflect historical events.

Bruce-Mitford,  Rupert and Myrtle.  “The Sutton Hoo Lyre, ‘Beowulf’ and the Origins of the Frame Harp”. Aspects of Anglo Saxon Archaeology.  (Victor Gollanez: London, 1974).
            An excellent article on a very important artefact.  It includes lots of detailed pictures and a good explanation of how the original reproduction (created by the author) went so horribly wrong.

 Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.  Volume 8 “Musical Cultures of Europe”. (Garland: NY, 2000).
           “Denmark”. v. 8. pp. 451-458.
            Hopkins, Pandora.  “Iceland”.  v. 8. pp. 400-409.
            Leisiö, Timo.  “Finland”. v. 8. pp. 475-483.
            “Norway”.  v. 8. pp. 410-424.
            Ling, Jan and Erik Kjellberg and Owe Ronström.  “Sweden”. v. 8. pp. 434-441.
            These articles provide a good survey and include many fragments of music.  The music is naturally all medieval and later, but it is helpful to get a sense of what Norse music developed into.

Grinde, Nils.  A History of Norwegian Music.  (University of Nebraska Press, 1991).
           This is one of the most useful sources I came across.

Horton, John.  Scandinavian Music: A short history.  (Greenwood Press, 1963).
            An excellent text with a chapter dedicated to the pre‑Christian and Mediaeval periods.

The Kalevala Heritage: Archive Recordings of Ancient Finnish Songs. (Ondine: Helsinki, Finland. 1995) 
            With many recordings preserved here from their turn-of-the-century wax cylinder recordings, this is an invaluable look into Finnish music.

Leahy, Kevin.  Anglo-Saxon Crafts. (Tempus Publishing: The Mill, Brimscombe Port, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 2003)
             This is a good broad survey book.  As he is pulling his information from many sources some of the techniques discussed are inaccurate.

Lönnrot, Elias. The Kalevala: Epic of the Finnish People. Trans. Eino Friberg. (Otava Publ. Co. Ltd.: Helsinki, Finland. 1988).
            This is the best translation of this epic poem(s) I’ve found as far as preserving the poetic feel and retaining the essential integrity of this amazing collection of Finnish oral tradition.

Orkneyinga Saga.  Trans. Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards. (Penguin Books: NY, 1981). Translation first published by Hogarth Press, 1978.

Mainman, A.J. and Rogers, N.S.H.  Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Anglo‑Scandinavian York.  Volume 17, Fascicule 14 : The Small Finds from the Archaeology of York series.  (Council for British Archaeology: York, 2000).
            This is a very detailed look at the smaller artefacts from a very rich series of digs.  Items are carefully illustrated to scale with excellent accompanying text.  A very useful source.

Morris, Carole A.  Wood and Woodworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. (York Archeological Trust: York, 2000).
            A detailed look at the York wood collection with six packed  pages dealing with the 4 instrument/instrument fragments that had been found.

New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ed Stanley Sadie.  (MacMillen Press: London, 1980).
            With excellent articles for all five of the core Norse countries (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) this is a very good source for a quick summary.

New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments.  Ed. Stanley Sadie. (MacMillen Press: London, 1984).
             “Lur”. Pp. 547-548.
             “Kantele”.  Pp. 358-359.
            More specific to just the instruments, this collection is a wonderful resource.

Saemundar Edda:  The Elder or Poetic Edda.  (Viking Club: London, 1908). reprinted by The Viking Society for Northern Research.
            This is an excellent edition including side by side translation.

Sanger, Keith and Kinnaird, Alison.  Tree of Strings: crann nan teud: A History of the Harp in    Scotland.  (Kinmor Music: Shillinghill Temple, Midlothian, Scotland, 1992).
            A very detailed piece of research and a great book even though it doesn’t actually ever mention the Norse specifically.

Simpson, Jacqueline.  Everyday Life in the Viking Age. (B.T. Batsford Ltd: London, 1967).
            A good survey book.

Steenstrup,  Johannes.   The Medieval Popular Ballad.  trans. Edward Godfrey Cox.  (University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1968).  Originally published 1891.
            Although dated, Steenstrup was a contemporary of Francis Child and his work was instrumental in preserving early Scandinavian balladry and still serves as a foundation for modern research.

Sturlason, Snorre.  Heimskringla: The Norse King Sagas.  Trans. Samuel Laing. (J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd: London, 1951)

          The Prose Edda.  University of California Press, London.

Wallace, Patrick.  A Guide to the National Museum of Ireland.  (Town House and Country House: Dublin, 2000).
            The National Museum of Ireland is one of the better collections I’ve seen.  This Guide only touches on four objects pertinent to this discussion — two cast bronze horns from Drumbest and Drunkendult, the Loughnashade trumpet, and St Patrick’s bell (and shrine).


The Archeology of York Web Series
           "Everyday Life: Music."
            This is a very well put together website by a museum with a great many items of interest for those studying Anglo‑Scandinavian culture.  The scale drawings and description of the preservation processes are very neat.

Arnamagnæan Digitization Project. AM 28 8vo - Codex Runicus.  University of Copenhagen. Accessed Oct. 2002.
            A huge project with wonderful scanned documents, but with little commentary.

Artefacts Alive!.  York Archaeological Trust. Accessed Nov. 2003.
            A very nice discovery site for students that doesn’t talk down to them and has very good information.

Brancato, Paola. Kantele.

Brown, Barnaby.  The Triplepipe.  Accessed Apr. 2004.
            A nice quick summary with some very nice pictures.

 Butler, P.  The Rebec Project.  Updated October 21, 2003
            A good historical survey with many good pictures and instructions on the construction of   a rebec.

Carter, Michael. Some Background Regarding the Glastonbury Drum. Accessed Aug. 2004.
            Michael Carter is an instrument maker and retired educator and it sounds like he’s done much research, but he doesn’t go into detail here.  The vague references are frustrating.

Chadwick, Simon. Anglo‑Saxon Reed Instruments?  June 25, 2000. Accessed Nov 2002.
            A well thought out argument in an area with little information.
            (Note: This article is no longer posted on his website, but can still be obtained by contacting the author directly)

Drapa Niflunga (The Slaughter of the Niflungs).  Poetic Edda. Trans Benjamin Thorpe. Accessed Apr. 2004.

Follett, Christopher.  Fascinating Glimpse of Viking’s Elite Lifestyle: Original seventh century Viking manor house building unearthed west of CopenhagenThe Copenhagen Post.  January 24, 2003.

Gjetmundsen, Kjetil. Norwegian Folk Music.
            Excellent description of half a dozen instruments and their histories.

Gustafsson‑Dock, Katarina.   Drømde mik en drøm: En bakgrund till musiklivet på Foteviken under vikingatid och medeltid.  Museum of Foteviken.  Accessed Sept 2004.
            Very frustrating as it looks like a great source, but while parts of the site are available in English, this research is only in Swedish.

Gohring, Bill and Janet.  History of the Jew’s Harp.  Accessed Aug 2004.

Hurstwic (a living history society in New England).  2001‑2002.
            Not bad research, but not complete.

 Lie, Kare A. The Songs of the Vikings.  2001.
            Lie is a Norweigan translator and author who speaks over a dozen languages.   His website provides a good survey of the music sources, but only talks about the lyre in discussing instruments.

Living History 400‑1100 Forum.  Sept 1999‑Oct 2002.
            C. L. Ward                                            Thu Sep 23 1999  
            Carolyn Priest‑Dorman                         Thu Sep 23 1999
            Gunnora Hallakarva                              Tue May 23 2000
            Catherine Stallybrass                             Sat Oct 19 2002
            Interesting discussions, but mostly useful for directing to other sources.

Miettinen, Jarno.  History of Jew’s Harp in Finland. Accessed Aug 2004.
            A good focused essay, but only one source of information is cited.        

Musica Romana:Instruments of Antiquity.  Accessed October, 2004.
            A brief survey of ancient instruments from a group of musicians interested in experimental archeology.  Well written although lacking in documentation.

Norwegian Traditional Music and Dance Association. Accessed Dec. 2003.
            Good images of a few of the traditional instruments with a bit of their history.

Panpipe or Syrinx. Accessed June 2004.
            From a series of short pages dealing with aspects of ancient music developed from a paper the author wrote at the University of Ghent.  The research, bibliography and links are good even if the English is a little rough in spots and the author is elusive
            (Kris Swente? aka S.W. Eaty)

Parrish, Vicki and Robinson, Michael. Giraldus Cambrensis
            These two Celtic musicians have done an excellent job with their research on this 12th century cleric.  What's especially nice is the side by side translation of the Giraldus' writings on Irish and Welsh music.

Paxson, Diana.

Priest‑Dorman, Greg and Carolyn. The Saxon Lyre: History, Construction, and Playing Techniques. 1992, 1995.
            The article deals more with construction than history, but it's a good summary and they do include a bibliography. 

Rahkonen, Carl. The Kantele Traditions of Finland. 2003
            Taken from his doctoral dissertation on the Finnish kantele, this is an expert and focussed article, but unfortunately his endnotes were not included.

Ramskou,Thorkild.  Music Blown on Lurs From the Danish Bronze Age.      
            Republished on this company website, the article lacks a bibliography, but is a good summary on the Bronze Lur.

Saha, Hannu. “The instruments of the Kalevala culture”. (Virtual Finland:1999).
            Accessed Aug 1, 2006
            No references, but a nice concise article written by an expert in the field.

Seglem, Karl. "Recordings of historical interest".  FolknettNorway:  The Guide to Norweigian Folk Music.
            A good survey, but no references.

"The Ship in Distress" in Scandinavia.  Reprint of “En Märkelig Vise om de Söfarne Mänd”
            a small tract, printed by Professor Svend Grundtvig originally appearing in The Folk‑Lore Record, Volume III part II, 1881.  Accessed December 2004.
            This is a short piece on a single song, but with good side by side translation.      

The Sigurd Portal. February 4, 2000.
            Mostly useful for its clear photographs.

Towrie, Sigurd. “Norn ‑ the Language of Orkney.”Orkneyjar--the heritage of the Orkney Islands.
             Accessed February, 2006
             A private website but well put together with interesting facts about the Orkneys (although with very little about music specifically).

Viking Age Music. Accessed May 2004.

 Pertout, Adrian.  The Jew’s Harp: At the Dawn of the New Millennium. Originally published in Mixdown Monthly, issue #68, Dec. 1999.  Accessed Aug 2004.
            A broad survey with a good bibliography, but it lacks details.

Preston, Cathy Lynn. A ‘Working’ KWIC Concordance to Francis James Child’s The English and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882-1898).  University of Colorado.  Accessed Aug. 2004.
            On-line source for Francis Child’s famous collection.    

Seglem, Karl. "Recordings of historical interest".  FolknettNorway:  The Guide to Norweigian Folk Music.
            A good survey, but no references.
           Interesting suggestion, but no backing evidence.

            Open discussions are always suspect, but there are some knowledgeable people on this list.

 The Viking Network
           Friis,  Mogens. Vikings and their Music. April 2000.
            Ragnarsson, Hjálmar H..  Viking music on Iceland from  "A Short History of Icelandic Music to the Beginning of the Twentieth CenturyMUSIC " (masters thesis, Cornell University, 1980)
            Types of Viking Music
            A very good source of information.  The page on Types of Viking Music is vague and unsubstantiated, but the others are good and there are excellent photos of the instruments.

Ward,  Christie (Gunnvör sílfrahárr).     Viking Age Music.  Accessed May, 2004.
            A very well researched paper and an excellent survey even though she claims it is still a work in progress.

Williamson, Roland. Music and Verse. Regia Anglorum Publications. February  2000.
            Though focused more on Anglo‑Saxon music, the essay is a decent survey.

Wooden pipe find excites Irish archaeologists. ABC Online. May 10, 2004. Accessed May 2004.
   December 7, 2003. Accessed Nov 2003.
            An on-line artefacts dealer.  I can’t vouch for their research, but they have very pretty things for sale for more money than I have.

[1]Horton, John.  Scandinavian Music:  A short history.  Greenwood Press, 1963. pp. 20‑21
[2]Lie, Kare A. The Songs of the Vikings.  2001. first published in J. B. de la Borde's Essai sur la musicque ancienne et moderne (1780)
[3]This version is copyright by Shelly Rabinovitch, based on translations by R.C. Prior, A. Olrik, and S. Straubharr.

      Updated: 4 Dec, 2007
Text © Richard Schweitzer, 2007
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