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Monday, February 19, 2007

Norse Weapons - who has what?

(once again modified from a post to Norsefolk)

When you look at the artifacts from the Viking Age, there are quite noticeable differences in terms of 'national preference' against weapon type as found in burials. Viewed as a very rough overall picture (only!)

Norway - swords
Sweden - spears
Denmark - axes

In terms of more of one type that dominates inside the area. All types are of course found, so its not as simple as 'I'm a Swede - so I should use a spear'.

As you might of guessed from the recent series of articles, there are wealth and status considerations to make related to a specific historic character and what weapon to carry. I have not specifically seen any data on the relative frequency of swords in burials overall. Just about everyone had a small tool knife, but my quick gut reaction is to say swords were like modern Rolex watches in terms of distribution through the population.

Generally swords / axes / spears are found only in male burials.
One real big problem with that generalization is the 'male dominant' angle . If there is a weapon found the sex is automaticly determined as male - without further examination into possible gender (converse is glass beads and female). Skeletons are only rarely sexed using methods OTHER than object generalizations as it turns out. There are some obviously female burials which are found with 'male' objects, particularly swords. Are these intended as working tools - or are they instead statements of status (which is more likely)? As I remember , axes are almost never found in female burials for example.

Swords specifically are high cost, special function, tools. Remember than few individuals in Norse society were full time wariors. If you are primarily a farmer who goes on raids a couple of times over your life span, then investing in an axe makes a lot more sense. This would be a tool axe as well - which explains why there are so many more small, multi function head sizes found.

Swords are also herloom objects. So there is scope there to interpet older blades which have been re-hilted. Stories collected on family blades. High quality swords might easily have a larger reputation than the person holding it.

I personally have a real interest in how simple technical factors can combine or interact inside a culture to create the tradtitions and customs that define a people. I think we are seeing how the metalworking problems are shaping the Norse.

(cross posted from Hammered out Bits)

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Thursday, February 8, 2007

On Norse Hammers

(this is a duplicate post from an entry from 'Hammered Out Bits' - included here primarily as a test to see what a full sized posting will look like with various backgrounds. This can be edited and saved when the DARC blog is fully functional)

Nickolas wrote:

> I have a question I hope you can help me with. I've been reading about the Mastermyr find, and I'm curious about the hammers. Were they wrought iron, or did they have a wrought body with steel peens and/or faces?

If you are real serious here, you should get a copy of

the Mastermyr Find
Arwidsson and Berg
AlmQuist & Wiksell - 1983
91-7402-129 X

Norm Larson Books in California got the rights to re-publish a couple of years back and was selling these for about $25 US a copy.

According to the report. Only one of the hammers was tested for metal content. That was the large hand sledge (# 69) at 3.3 kg. This shows the PEEN end as forge welded mid carbon steel but welded on to the iron body. Makes some sence if you figure its smaller and thus more likely to deform.

The section on metallurgy mentions most of the hammers are formed of a single mass of iron "..the objects were made from fairly homogeneous iron pieces." (Note that the axes tested have welded higher carbon edges)

If you look at the hammers found, the faces on two of the mid sized tools show significant mushing out at the face, whihc certainly looks like use pattern on softer iron bodies. All show some upsetting at the face - but I personally take this as partially the effect of the original forging to shape.

A fast visual reference : take a look at the blacksmith's shop reconstruction I put together for 'World of the Norse'

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